京都市、中京区/下京区/ 滋賀県、草津市/栗東市の鍼灸は「なかむら第二針療所」と「草津栗東鍼灸院」で。不妊症、脱毛症、難聴、自律神経系疾患は当院で! 茨木市、高槻市など大阪、兵庫からも多数来院されています。

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利用者及び専門家のために(NCCAM発)


FOR CONSUMERS AND PRACTITIONERS

(消費者と治療者のために)
(翻訳・中村一徳、ジーニアス英和和英辞典・大修館書店、医学大事典・南山堂)

BY NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH, NATIONAL CENTER FOR COMPLEMENTARY & ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (NCCAM), NCCAM Clearinghouse 
(米国国立衛生研究所、米国国立相補代替医療センター、同情報センター)

Acupuncture Information and Resources(鍼治療の知識と手法)

                Contents(目次)

                Acupuncture Information(鍼治療の知識)

                      Introduction(はじめに) 
                      Acupuncture Theories(鍼理論) 
                      Preclinical Studies(基礎研究) 
                      Mechanisms of Action(作用機序) 
                      Clinical Studies(臨床研究) 
                      FDA’s Role(食品衛生管理局の役割) 
                      NCCAM-Sponsored Clinical Research(NCCAM出資の臨床研究) 
                      Acupuncture and You(鍼治療とあなた) 
                      Finding a Licensed Acupuncture Practitioner(免許を受けた鍼医を見つけること) 
                             Check a practitioner’s credentials(鍼医である証明をチェックせよ) 
                             Check treatment cost and insurance coverage(治療費と保険担保範囲をチェックせよ) 
                             Check treatment procedures(治療手順をチェックせよ) 
                      The Sensation of Acupuncture(鍼治療の感覚) 
                      For More Information(より多くの情報のために) 
                      Glossary of Terms(専門用語解説集)(訳略) 
                      References(参考文献)(訳略) 
 

     (以下の翻訳は略する) 
                Acupuncture Information Resources

                      Introduction 
                      National Institutes of Health 
                      Publications 
                             Books 
                             Periodicals 
                      Organizations 
                             Training and Credentialing Organizations 
                      Online Resources 
                      NCCAM Clearinghouse

                Other Formats

                      Text

・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・

                Acupuncture Information(鍼治療の知識)

    Introduction(はじめに) 
     Acupuncture(鍼治療)

   Acupuncture is one of the oldest, most commonly used medical procedures in the world. Originating in China more than 2,000 years ago, acupuncture became widely known in the United States in 1971 when New York Times reporter James Reston wrote about how doctors in Beijing, China, used needles to ease his abdominal pain after surgery. Research shows that acupuncture is beneficial in treating a variety of health conditions. 
 鍼治療は世界中でもっとも普通に行われている最も古い医療手段である。起源は二千年以上前の中国にあり、アメリカでは1971年にニューヨークタイムスの記者ジェームズ・ロストンが中国にいた時に、彼の手術後の腹痛を鍼治療でやわらいだことをリポートしたときから、広く知られるようになってきた。調査は鍼治療が様々な健康状態の治療に有益であることを示している。

   In the past two decades, acupuncture has grown in popularity in the United States. In 1993, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) estimated that  Americans made 9 to 12 million visits per year to acupuncture practitioners and spent as much as $500 million on acupuncture treatments. In 1995, an estimated 10,000 nationally certified acupuncturists were practicing in the United States. By the year 2000, that number is expected to double. Currently, an estimated one-third of certified acupuncturists in the United States are medical doctors. 
 この二十年間で、鍼治療はアメリカ合衆国において人気を得るようになってきた。1993年、アメリカ食品薬物認可局は一年間に九百万ないし千二百万人が鍼治療を受け、それについて五億ドルを支払っている、と発表した。1995年現在、一万人の免許を受けた鍼師がアメリカで治療をおこなっている。2001年までに、その数は二倍になるだろうと予測される。現在、免許を受けた鍼師のうち三分の一は医師である。

   The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has funded a variety of research projects on acupuncture that have been awarded by its National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institute of Dental Research, National  Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and National Institute on Drug Abuse. 
 米国国立衛生研究所は、以下の機関(略)によって認められた、鍼治療における様々な研究計画に対して、基金を拠出してきた。

   This information package provides general information about acupuncture, summaries of NIH research findings on acupuncture, information for the health consumer, a list of additional information resources, and a glossary that defines terms underscored in the text. It also lists books, journals, organizations, and Internet resources to help you learn more about acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine. 
 このひとまとまりの情報は、鍼治療についての一般的情報、鍼治療についてのNIH調査の結果の要約、健康についての利用者のための情報、追加的情報源のリスト、そして、テキストにおいて強調された用語を定義する用語解説を提供するものである。また、文献、組織、そして、あなたが鍼治療や伝統的中医学についてより多くを学ぶ手助けとなる情報をもリストアップする。

                Acupuncture Theories(鍼理論)

   Traditional Chinese medicine theorizes that the more than 2,000 acupuncture points on the human body connect with 12 main and 8 secondary pathways, called meridians. Chinese medicine practitioners believe these meridians conduct energy, or qi, between the surface of the body and internal organs. 
 経穴は人体に二千以上あると言われ、それは経絡と呼ばれる12本の主たる流れと、8本の二次的な流れに関連している、と中医学は理論づけている。中国の医療従事者は体の表面と内部組織間で、これらの経絡がエネルギー(気)を調節していると信じている。

  Qi regulates spiritual, emotional, mental, and physical balance. Qi is influenced by the opposing forces of yin and yang. According to traditional Chines medicine, when yin and yang are balanced, they work together with the natural flow of qi to help the body achieve and maintain health. Acupuncture is believed to balance yin and yang, keep the normal flow of energy unblocked, and restore health to the body and mind. 
 気は精神的、感情的、観念的そして肉体的なバランスを統制している。気は陰と陽という二つの拮抗する力の影響を受けている。伝統的中医学によると、陰と陽のバランスがとれているとき、それらは自然な気の流れをして、体を健康に導くもしくは保つ手助けとなる。鍼治療は陰と陽のバランスを取り、正常なエネルギーの流れをよくし、体と心を修復すると信じられている。

    Traditional Chinese medicine practices (including acupuncture, herbs, diet, massage, and meditative physical exercises) all are intended to improve the flow of qi. 
 伝統的中医学(鍼治療、漢方薬、食養生、導引術、そして治療的肉体的運動(太極拳などのことを言っているのか(?)を含む)はすべて、気の流れを改善しようとしている。

   Western scientists have found meridians hard to identify because meridians do not directly correspond to nerve or blood circulation pathways. Some  researchers believe that meridians are located throughout the body’s connective tissue; others do not believe that qi exists at all. Such differences of  opinion have made acupuncture a source of scientific controversy. 
 西洋の科学者達は、経絡を認識するのに苦労した。というのは、経絡は神経や血管の走行に直接的に相応していないからである。経絡は結合組織全体をとおして配置されていると信じる研究者もあれば、まったく気の存在を信じない者もいる。そういった意見の食い違いが、鍼治療を科学的議論の種にしているのである。

                Preclinical Studies(基礎研究)

    Preclinical studies have documented acupuncture’s effects, but they have not been able to fully explain how acupuncture works within the framework of the Western system of medicine. 
 基礎研究は鍼治療の効果に必要となる証拠を提供してきた。しかし、それらは西洋的メッドラインの枠組みの中で、鍼治療の作用機序を十分に説明しうるものではなかった。

                Mechanisms of Action(作用機序)

   Several processes have been proposed to explain acupuncture’s effects, primarily those on pain. Acupuncture points are believed to stimulate the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to release chemicals into the muscles, spinal cord, and brain. These chemicals either change the experience of pain or release other chemicals, such as hormones, that influence the body’s self-regulating systems. The biochemical changes may stimulate the body’s natural healing abilities and promote physical and emotional well-being. There are three main mechanisms: 
 いくつかの作用(まず痛みにおいて)が鍼治療の効果を説明するために提出されてきた。経穴は筋、脊髄神経そして脳に化学物質を放出するように脊髄神経や脳を刺激するものと考えられている。これらの化学物質は痛みの体験を変化させるか、もしくはホルモン(体の自己統制システムに影響を及ぼしている)のような他の化学物質を放出するのである。その生化学的変化は自然治癒能力を刺激し、肉体的、精神的健康を促進するのかも知れない。これらには3つの主たるメカニズムが存在する。

 1.Conduction of electromagnetic signals: Western scientists have found evidence that acupuncture points are strategic conductors of electromagnetic signals. Stimulating points along these pathways through acupuncture enables electromagnetic signals to be relayed at a greater rate than under normal conditions. These signals may start the flow of pain-killing biochemicals, such as endorphins, and of immune system cells to specific sites in the body that are injured or vulnerable to disease. 
1・電気磁性的信号の伝達 
 西洋の科学者達は経穴が電気磁性的信号の戦略的指揮官であるとの証拠を発見した。鍼治療によるこれらの経絡に沿っえポイントを刺激することは電気磁性的信号を、通常の状態よりもはるかに高い割合で伝達することを可能にする。これらの信号はエンドルフィンといった鎮痛生化学物質や免疫システム細胞の流れを、傷ついた、もしくは傷つきやすい体の特定の部位に移動させる。

2.Activation of opioid systems: Research has found that several types of opioids may be released into the central nervous system during acupuncture treatment, thereby reducing pain. 
2・オピオイドシステムの活性化 
 研究は、オピオイドシステムの幾つかが鍼治療中に中枢神経系に放出され、それによって痛みを減らしているかも知れないことを突き止めた。

(注(後述のGlossory Terms より)・ Opioids(オピオイド)…Synthetic or naturally occurring chemicals in the brain that may reduce pain and induce sleep.(脳内で合成されたり自然に分泌される物質で、痛みを鎮めたり、睡眠を誘導する。)

3.Changes in brain chemistry, sensation, and involuntary body functions: Studies have shown that acupuncture may alter brain chemistry by changing the release of neurotransmitters and neurohormones in a good way. Acupuncture also has been documented to affect the parts of the central nervous system related to sensation and involuntary body functions, such as immune reactions and processes whereby a person’s blood pressure, blood flow, and body temperature are regulated. 
3・脳の化学的性質、感覚そして無意識的身体機能の変化 
 研究は、鍼治療が神経伝達物質や神経ホルモンを良い方向でその放出を変化させることにより、脳の化学的性質を変えているかも知れないことを示している。鍼治療はまた、感覚や、免疫反応やプロセスといった無意識的身体機能に関連する中枢神経系の部分に影響を及ぼし、それによって人の血圧、血流、体温が制御される事を立証してきた。 
 

                Clinical Studies(臨床的研究)

   According to an NIH consensus panel of scientists, researchers, and practitioners who convened in November 1997, clinical studies have shown that acupuncture is an effective treatment for nausea caused by surgical anesthesia and cancer chemotherapy as well as for dental pain experienced after surgery. The panel also found that acupuncture is useful by itself or combined with conventional therapies to treat addiction, headaches, menstrual cramps, tennis elbow, fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, osteoarthritis, lower back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and asthma; and to assist in stroke rehabilitation. 
 1997年11月に召集された科学者、研究者治療家によるNIH同意委員会によると、臨床的研究は、鍼治療が術後に経験する歯痛に対してと同様に、手術麻酔後や癌化学療法後の吐き気に対して効果的な治療法であることを示してきた。この委員会はまた、鍼治療が麻薬中毒、頭痛、月経痛、テニス肘、筋痛症(訳者注・この語はいくつかの重要な病理形態を含んでいる)、筋-筋膜症候群、骨関節炎、腰痛症、手根管症候群そして気管支喘息の治療に、また脳卒中のリハビリを助けるために、それ自身で、もしくは通常の治療法と合わせることによって有用であることを見いだした。

    Increasingly, acupuncture is complementing conventional therapies. For example, doctors may combine acupuncture and drugs to control surgery-related pain in their patients. By providing both acupuncture and certain conventional anesthetic drugs, doctors have found it possible to achieve a state of complete  pain relief for some patients. They also have found that using acupuncture lowers the need for conventional pain-killing drugs and thus reduces the risk of  side effects for patients who take the drugs. 
 鍼治療はますます、慣習的治療法を補完しつつあるのである。例えば、医師は患者の手術関連痛をコントロールするために、鍼治療と薬物を組み合わせるかもしれない。鍼治療と習慣的な鎮痛薬の両方を提供することにより、医師は完全な痛みからの解放に達する患者もいる事を発見した。彼らはまた、鍼治療を使うことが一般的鎮痛薬の必要性を減じ、そうして服薬中の患者の副作用の危険性を減らせることを見いだしてきた。

    Outside the United States, the World Health Organization (WHO), the health branch of the United Nations, lists more than 40 conditions for which  acupuncture may be used. The table below lists these conditions. 
 アメリカ合衆国のほかでは、国連の健康関連部門である世界保健機関が、鍼治療が利用される40以上のコンディションを列挙した。下記にあるのがそれらのコンディションである。

       Conditions Appropriate for Acupuncture Therapy(鍼治療適応疾患) 
             Digestive(消化器) 
                 Abdominal pain(胃痛) 
                 Constipation(便秘) 
                 Diarrhea(下痢) 
                 Hyperacidity(胃酸過多症) 
                 Indigestion(胃弱)

               Emotional(情動) 
                 Anxiety(不安症) 
                 Depression(鬱病) 
                 Insomnia(不眠症) 
                 Nervousness(神経質) 
                 Neurosis(神経症)

              Eye-Ear-Nose-Throat(眼、耳、鼻、咽喉) 
                Cataracts(白内障) 
                Gingivitis(歯肉炎) 
                Poor vision( 
                Tinnitis(耳鳴り) 
                Toothache(歯痛)

             Gynecological(産婦人科) 
                Infertility(不妊症) 
                Menopausal  symptoms(更年期障害) 
                Premenstrual   syndrome(月経前症候群)

              Miscellaneous 
                 Addiction control(中毒のコントロール) 
                 Athletic performance(運動競技能力) 
                 Blood pressure regulation(血圧コントロール) 
                 Chronic fatigue(慢性疲労) 
                 Immune system tonification(免疫システムの調整) 
                 Stress reduction(ストレスの緩和)

             Musculoskeletal(筋骨格) 
                Arthritis(関節炎) 
                 Back pain(腰痛) 
                 Muscle cramping(筋痙攣) 
                 Muscle pain/weakness(筋肉痛及び虚弱) 
                 Neck pain(頚部痛) 
                 Sciatica(坐骨神経痛)

           Neurological(神経) 
                Headaches(頭痛) 
                Migraines(偏頭痛) 
                Neurogenic bladder dysfunction(膀胱神経機能障害) 
                Parkinson’s disease(パーキンソン病) 
                Postoperative pain(術後痛) 
                Stroke(脳卒中)

             Respiratory(呼吸器) 
               Asthma(喘息) 
               Bronchitis(気管支炎) 
               Common cold(風邪) 
               Sinusitis(鼻炎) 
               Smoking cessation(喫煙中断) 
              Tonsillitis(扁桃炎)

 Source: World Health Organization, United Nations. “Viewpoint on Acupuncture.” 1979 (revised). 
典拠・国際連合世界保健機関鍼治療上の観点(1979年改訂版)

   Currently, one of the main reasons Americans seek acupuncture treatment is to relieve chronic pain, especially from conditions such as arthritis or lower back disorders. Some clinical studies show that acupuncture is effective in relieving both chronic (long-lasting) and acute or sudden pain, but other research indicates that it provides no relief from chronic pain. Additional research is needed to provide definitive answers. 
 現在の所、アメリカ人が鍼治療を求める主な理由の一つは、慢性痛、特に関節炎や腰痛といったコンディションをやわらげるためである。鍼治療が慢性的(持続性)急性の両方に、また突然の痛みの緩和に効果的であるとする研究もあるが、慢性痛を軽減することはないと示す研究もある。付加される研究は最終的な解答を提供することを必要とされている。

                FDA’s Role(食品衛生管理局の役割)

   The FDA approved acupuncture needles for use by licensed practitioners in 1996. The FDA requires manufacturers of acupuncture needles to label them for single use only. Relatively few complications from the use of acupuncture have been reported to the FDA when one considers the millions of people treated each year and the number of acupuncture needles used. Still, complications have resulted from inadequate sterilization of needles and from improper delivery of treatments. When not delivered properly, acupuncture can cause serious adverse effects, including infections and puncturing of organs. 
 FDAは1996年に免許を受けた臨床科によって使用される治療用の鍼を承認し、その鍼の製造者に対しては、一回限りの使用という事をラベルで貼るように要求した。数百万人の人々が毎年治療を受け、それに応じた数の鍼が使用されているという事を考すると、鍼の使用から起こる紛争は、比較的わずかにFDAに報告されただけであった。それでもなお、紛糾の種は、鍼の不適切な消毒と不適切な往診治療の結果として起こっている。もし、往診治療が適切になされなければ、鍼治療は感染症や組織損傷といった深刻な悪影響を引き起こしうるのである。

                NCCAM-Sponsored Clinical Research(相補代替医療ナショナルセンター出資の臨床的研究)

    Originally founded in 1992 as the Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM), the NCCAM facilitates the research and evaluation of unconventional medical practices and disseminates this information to the public. The NCCAM, established in 1998, supports nine Centers, where researchers conduct studies on complementary and alternative medicine for specific health conditions and diseases. Scientists at several Centers are investigating acupuncture therapy. 
 代替医療局(OAM)として1992年に創始され、NCCAMは非習慣的な治療の研究と発展を促進し、公共に対してその情報を普及させている。そして1998年にNCCAMとなり、特定のコンディションと疾患のための相補代替医療の研究を指揮する研究者達を有する九つのセンターをサポートしている。そのうち幾つかのセンターの科学者達は鍼治療を徹底的に研究している。

    Researchers at the NCCAM Center at the University of Maryland in Baltimore conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial and found that patients treated with acupuncture after dental surgery had less intense pain than patients who received a placebo. Other scientists at the Center found that older people with osteoarthritis experienced significantly more pain relief after using conventional drugs and acupuncture together than those using conventional therapy alone. 
 バルチモアのメリーランド大学のNCCAMセンターの研究者達は、無作為に選ばれるようにコントロールされた臨床的試行を行い、歯科手術後に鍼治療を受けた患者たちは、プラセボ群の患者たちよりも激しい痛みが減っていることを見いだした。そのセンターの他の科学者達は骨関節炎を煩う高齢者達が、一般的な薬と鍼治療を併用した後に、薬だけを使用したときよりも、よりはっきりと痛みがやわらぐことを経験している事を見いだした。 
 

   Researchers at the Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation in Minnesota are studying the use of acupuncture to treat alcoholism and addiction to benzodiazepines, nicotine, and cocaine. Scientists at the Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation in New Jersey studied acupuncture to treat a stroke-related swallowing disorder and the pain associated with spinal cord injuries. 
 ミネソタ州のミネアポリス医療研究財団の研究者達はアルコール依存症や、ベンゾジアゼピン系薬剤、ニコチン及びコカインの中毒の治療のための鍼治療の有用性を研究している。ニュージャージー州のケスラーリハビリテーション研究所の科学者達は、脳卒中関連の嚥下困難症や脊髄損傷と結びついた痛みを治療するために鍼治療を研究している。

   The OAM, now the NCCAM, also funded several individual researchers in 1993 and 1994 to conduct preliminary studies on acupuncture. In one small randomized controlled clinical trial, more than half of the 11 women with a major depressive episode who were treated with acupuncture improved significantly. 
 代替医療局、つまり現在の相補代替医療センターもまた、鍼治療の予備研究を統制するために1993、1994年に個人的な研究者に出資している。ある小さな無作為に管理された臨床的試行において、鬱病の経験を持つ、鍼治療を受けた11人の女性のうち半数以上がはっきりと改善した。

   In another controlled clinical trial, nearly half of the seven children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who underwent acupuncture treatment showed some improvement in their symptoms. Researchers concluded that acupuncture was a useful alternative to standard medication for some children with this condition. 
 他の管理された臨床的試行においては、注意散漫の異常に活発な状態という障害を持つ、鍼治療を受けた7人の子供達のうち、ほぼ半数が彼らの症状にいくらかの改善を認めた。研究者達はこういったコンディションの子供達の中には、鍼治療が標準的な有用な代替療法となるも場合もあると結論づけた。

    In a third small controlled study, eight pregnant women were given a type of acupuncture treatment, called moxibustion, to reduce the rate of breech births, in which the fetus is positioned for birth feet-first instead of the normal position of head-first. Researchers found the treatment to be safe, but they were uncertain whether it was effective. Then, researchers reporting in the November 11, 1998, issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association conducted a larger randomized controlled clinical trial using moxibustion. They found that moxibustion applied to 130 pregnant women presenting breech significantly increased the number of normal head-first births. 
 三つ目の小規模の管理された研究では、灸と呼ばれる鍼治療の一形態を受けた8人の妊娠中の女性は逆子出産の割合が低下した(in which 以下は逆子の説明、常識的なので割愛)。研究者らは灸治療を安全なものであると確認したが、それが効果的であるかどうかを確信するには至らなかった。その頃、1998年11月11日に研究者達がアメリカ医療協会誌にレポートした記事は、灸治療を使った、より多くの無作為抽出で管理された臨床的試行を伝えている。逆子を示す130人の妊娠女性に適用された灸治療が正常の頭位出産の数をはっきりと増加させたことを彼らは見いだした。

(訳者注・なぜ、灸を鍼治療の一形態とみなすのか?アメリカではそう捉えられているのか?)

                Acupuncture and You(鍼治療とあなた)

    The use of acupuncture, like many other complementary and alternative treatments, has produced a good deal of anecdotal evidence. Much of this evidence comes from people who report their own successful use of the treatment. If a treatment appears to be safe and patients report recovery from their illness or condition after using it, others may decide to use the treatment. However, scientific research may not substantiate the anecdotal reports. 
 鍼治療の利用は、多くの他の相補代替医療のように多くの逸話的証拠を作り出してきている。この証拠の多くは、その治療法を使って成功したと報告する人々に由来している。もし、ある治療法が安全であり、しかもその利用後に、患者達が病気やコンディションの回復を報告したら、他の人々もその治療法を利用しようとするかも知れない。しかしながら、科学的調査はその逸話的報告を実証しないかもしれない。

   Lifestyle, age, physiology, and other factors combine to make every person different. A treatment that works for one person may not work for another who has the very same condition. You, as a health care consumer (especially if you have a preexisting medical condition); should discuss acupuncture with your doctor. Do not rely on a diagnosis of disease by an acupuncturist who does not have substantial conventional medical training. If you have received a diagnosis from a doctor and have had little or no success using conventional medicine, you may wish to ask your doctor whether acupuncture might help. 
 ライフスタイル、年齢、生理機能や他の因子は全ての人において異なって兼ね備わっている。ひとつの治療法がある人に有効であったからといって、同様のコンディションを有する他の人に有効であるとは限らないかもしれない。ヘルスケアの利用者(とりわけもしあなたが受療前状態にあるならば)としてのあなたは、かかりつけ医と鍼治療について相談すべきである。実証的一般医療訓練を受けていない鍼医による診断に頼ってはいけない。あなたは鍼治療が助けとなるかどうかについて、かかりつけ医に尋ねてもよいのである。

                Finding a Licensed Acupuncture Practitioner(免許を受けた鍼医を見つけること)

   Doctors are a good resource for referrals to acupuncturists. Increasingly, doctors are familiar with acupuncture and may know of a certified practitioner. In addition, more medical doctors, including neurologists, anesthesiologists, and specialists in physical medicine, are becoming trained in acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, and other alternative and complementary therapies. Friends and family members may be a source of referrals as well. In addition, national referral organizations provide the names of practitioners, although these organizations may be advocacy groups for the practitioners to whom they refer. See Acupuncture Resources for a list of these organizations. 
 医師は鍼医への照会のよき情報源である。医師はますます鍼について良く知るようになっており、認可された鍼医を知っているかも知れない。加えて、神経科医、麻酔科医そして物理療法の専門家を含むより多くの医師達が、鍼治療、伝統的中医学そして他の相補代替療法において訓練されてきている。友人や家族も同様に、照会への一つの情報源になりうるかも知れない。加えて、照会する療法家たちの支持組織であるかも知れないものの、全国的な照会組織が、療法家の氏名を提供している。これら組織のリストの鍼治療の情報を見て下さい。 
 

                Check a practitioner’s credentials.(鍼医である証明をチェックせよ)

    A practitioner who is licensed and credentialed may provide better care than one who is not. About 30 states have established training standards for certification to practice acupuncture, but not all states require acupuncturists to obtain a license to practice. Although proper credentials do not ensure competency, they do indicate that the practitioner has met certain standards to treat patients with acupuncture. 
 免許を受けた、もしくは証明される療法家は、おそらくそれを持たない者よりもよりよいヘルスケアを提供するであろう。約30の州が鍼治療を行うための認可のための訓練基準を設けたが、全ての州が治療を行うために免許を有することを鍼医に要求しているわけではない。適切な認可が力量を保証するわけではないけれども、認可は療法家達に鍼治療で患者を治療する上で、一定の基準を満たしている事を示している。

  The American Academy of Medical Acupuncture can give you a referral list of doctors who practice acupuncture. The National Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Alliance lists thousands of acupuncturists on its Web site and provides the list to callers to their information and referral line. The Alliance requires documentation of state license or national board certification from its listed acupuncturists. The American Association of Oriental Medicine can tell you the state licensing status of acupuncture practitioners across the United States as well. To contact these and other organizations, see Acupuncture Resources. 
 アメリカ鍼医学アカデミーはあなたに鍼治療を行う医師を紹介することが出来る。国際鍼灸及び東洋医学同盟はそのホームページに数千の鍼医をリストアップし、それらの情報や照会ラインへの訪問者にはそのリストを提供している。その提携にはリストアップされた鍼医から州の免許、もしくは委員会の認可を必要としている。アメリカ東洋医学協会は同様にアメリカ全体の鍼医の免許所持状況をあなたに伝えることが出来る。これらのそして他の組織と連絡を取り、鍼の情報を見て下さい。

                Check treatment cost and insurance coverage.(治療費と保険担保範囲をチェックせよ)

    Reflecting public demand, an estimated 70 to 80 percent of the nation’s insurers covered some acupuncture treatments in 1996. An acupuncturist may provide information about the number of treatments needed and how much each will cost. Generally, treatment may take place over a few days or several weeks. The cost per treatment typically ranges between $30 and $100, but it may be appreciably more. Physician acupuncturists may charge more than nonphysician practitioners. 
 公共の要請を反映して、1996年にはざっと70~80%の保険会社がなんらかの鍼治療を保障している。鍼医は必要な治療回数と一回当たりの治療費に関する情報を提供するだろう。一般的に、治療は2~3日もしくは数週間以上行われるであろう。一回当たりの治療費は概して30ドルから100ドルの範囲であるが、それは評価出来るものであろう。医師兼鍼医は鍼医だけの者よりも多く請求するかも知れない。

                Check treatment procedures.(治療手順をチェックせよ)

   To find out about the treatment procedures that will be used and their likelihood of success. You also should make certain that the practitioner uses a new set of disposable needles in a sealed package every time. The FDA requires the use of sterile, nontoxic needles that bear a labeling statement restricting their use to qualified practitioners. The practitioner also should swab the puncture site with alcohol or another disinfectant before inserting the needle. 
 使用される治療手順と成功の可能性を探し出すために。あなたもまた、鍼医が毎回パックされた新しいディスポーザブル鍼を使っていることを確かめるべきである。FDAは、資格を有する鍼医にのみ使用を制限し、ラベルを貼った消毒済の無毒の鍼の使用を命じている。

   Some practitioners may use electroacupuncture; others may use moxibustion. These approaches are part of traditional Chinese medicine, and Western researchers are beginning to study whether they enhance acupuncture’s effects. 
 電気鍼を使う鍼医もいれば灸を使う者もいるかもしれない。これらの方法は伝統的中医学の一部であり、西洋の研究者らは、それらの方法が鍼治療の効果を増加させるかどうか研究し始めているところである。

   During your first office visit, the practitioner may ask you at length about your health condition, lifestyle, and behavior. The practitioner will want to obtain a complete picture of your treatment needs and behaviors that may contribute to the condition. This holistic approach is typical of traditional Chinese medicine and many other alternative and complementary therapies. 
 初診時には鍼医はあなたのコンディション、生活様式や習慣について詳細に質問するであろう。鍼医はあなたの治療上の必要性や習慣から完全な、そしてそれはコンディションに貢献するであろう全体像を得たいと思うだろう。この全体的な手法が伝統的中医学及び代替相補的治療の特徴である。

   Let the acupuncturist, or any doctor for that matter, know about all treatments or medications you are taking and whether you have a pacemaker, are pregnant, or have breast or other implants. Acupuncture may be risky to your health if you fail to tell the practitioner about any of these matters. 
 鍼医に、いやもっとはっきり言うなら全ての医師に対して、あなたが受けている治療やのんでいる薬、そしてペースメーカーを使っているかとか、妊娠しているかとか、乳房部の移植(具体的には豊胸手術などをさす)もしくは他の移植をしたかについて知らせなさい。もし、あなたがこれらの事柄について鍼医に言わなければ、鍼治療はあなたの健康に危険となるかも知れない。

(注・ breast は主として女性の乳房を指し、医学的に言うところの胸部、つまり肋骨、胸骨などで囲まれた部分は chest である。また、have breast や give a child breast というのは「お乳を与える」という意味であるが、ここでは have breast or other implants とあり、これを正確に書くと have breast implants or other implants である。従って、乳房の移植手術、とりわけシリコンなどの豊胸手術を指している。これは米国で治療に携わってこられた方が、その経験を元に教えて下さった。) 
 

                The Sensation of Acupuncture(鍼治療の感覚)

   Acupuncture needles are metallic, solid, and hair-thin, unlike the thicker, hollow hypodermic needles used in Western medicine to administer treatments or take blood samples. People experience acupuncture differently, but most feel minimal pain as the needles are inserted. Some people are energized by treatment, while others feel relaxed. Some patients may fear acupuncture because they are afraid of needles. Improper needle placement, movement of the patient, or a defect in the needle can cause soreness and pain during treatment. This is why it is so important to seek treatment from a qualified acupuncture practitioner. 
 鍼治療用の鍼は、西洋医学的治療に使われる薬物注射や採血用の太く穴の空いた注射針とは違い、金属で、堅く、髪の毛ほどに細い。人々はせれぞれ鍼治療を経験するが、ほとんどの人は鍼が刺入されるときにわずかに痛みを感じるだけである。治療によってエネルギーが増す人もあれば、かたやリラックスする人もある。また鍼治療をこわがる人もいるが、それは針をこわがっているのである。不適切な場所への施鍼、患者の動き、また鍼の不良は治療中にいろんな痛みを起こしうる。そんなわけで良い鍼医の治療を探すことは大変重要なのである。

  As important research advances continue to be made on acupuncture worldwide, practitioners and doctors increasingly will work together to give you the best care available. 
 重要な研究的進歩が鍼治療において世界的に続けられるほどに、鍼医と医師は可能な限りの最高のケアをあなたに与えるために共に働くであろう。

                For More Information(より多くの情報のために)

    For more information about acupuncture research sponsored by different parts of NIH, contact the respective Information Office or Clearinghouse. Call the NIH operator for assistance at 301-496-4000. 
 NIHの異なる部門が保証している鍼の研究についてのより多くの情報のために、それぞれの受付や情報センターに問い合わせて下さい。NIHのオペレーターにお電話下されば手助けをします。

   For more information about research on acupuncture, contact the NIH National Library of Medicine (NLM), which has published a bibliography of more than 2,000 citations to studies conducted on acupuncture. The bibliography is available on the Internet at  http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/cbm/acupuncture.html or by writing the NLM, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894. The NLM also has a toll-free  telephone number: 1-888-346-3656. 
 さらに多くの鍼治療についての情報のためには、鍼治療に繋がる二千以上の引用文の参考文献を発表してきたNIHのNLMに問い合わせて下さい。参考文献は以下のURLもしくはNLMへの手紙で利用可能であります。NLMはまた通話料無料の電話回線を持っており、その番号は以下の通りです。

   For a database of research on complementary and alternative medicine, including acupuncture, access the CAM Citation Index on the NCCAM Web site at http://nccam.nih.gov/nccam/resources/cam-ci/. 
 鍼治療を含む相補代替医療に関する研究のデータベースのためには、以下のURLのNCCAMのホームページ上のCAM引用目録にアクセスして下さい。 
 

・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・・

以下、専門用語集は翻訳略

                Glossary of Terms

                Acupuncture 
   An ancient Chinese health practice that involves puncturing the skin with hair-thin needles at particular locations, called acupuncture points, on the patient’s body. Acupuncture is believed to help reduce pain or change a body function. Sometimes the needles are twirled, given a slight electric charge (see electroacupuncture), or warmed (see moxibustion).

                Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 
   A syndrome primarily found in children and teenagers that is characterized by excessive physical movement, impulsiveness, and lack of attention.

                Clinical studies 
   (Also clinical trials, clinical outcomes studies, controlled trials, case series, comparative trials, or practice audit evidence.) Tests of a treatment’s effects in humans. Treatments undergo clinical studies only after they have shown promise in laboratory studies of animals. Clinical studies help researchers find out whether a promising treatment is safe and effective for people. They also tell scientists which treatments are more effective thanothers.

                Electroacupuncture 
  A variation of traditional acupuncture treatment in which acupuncture or needle points are stimulated electronically.

                Electromagnetic signals 
   The minute electrical impulses that transmit information through and between nerve cells. For example, electromagnetic signals convey information about pain and other sensations within the body’s nervous system.

                Fibromyalgia 
   A complex chronic condition having multiple symptoms, including muscle pain, weakness, and stiffness; fatigue; metabolic disorders; allergies; and headaches.

                Holistic 
   Describes therapies based on facts about the “whole person,” including spiritual and mental aspects, not only the specific part of the body being treated. Holistic practitioners may advise changes in diet, physical activity, and other lifestyle factors to help treat a patient’s condition.

                Meridians 
    A traditional Chinese medicine term for the 14 pathways throughout the body for the flow of qi, or vital energy, accessed through acupuncture points.

                Moxibustion 
   The use of dried herbs in acupuncture. The herbs are placed on top of acupuncture needles and burned. This method is believed to be more effective at treating some health condititions than using acupuncture needles alone.

                Neurohormones 
   Chemical substances made by tissue in the body’s nervous system that can change the structure or function or direct the activity of an organ or 
                      organs.

                Neurological 
   A term referring to the body’s nervous system, which starts, oversees, and controls all body functions.

                Neurotransmitters 
   Biochemical substances that stimulate or inhibit nerve impulses in the brain that relay information about external stimuli and sensations, such as pain.

                Opioids 
   Synthetic or naturally occurring chemicals in the brain that may reduce pain and induce sleep.

                Placebo 
   An inactive substance given to a participant in a research study as part of a test of the effects of another substance or treatment. Scientists often compare the effects of active and inactive substances to learn more about how the active substance affects participants.

                Preclinical studies 
   Tests performed after a treatment has been shown in laboratory studies to have a desirable effect. Preclinical studies provide information about a 
                      treatment’s harmful side effects and safety at different doses in animals.

                Qi 
   (Pronounced “chee.”) The Chinese term for vital energy or life force.

                Randomized controlled clinical trials 
   A type of clinical study that is designed to provide information about whether a treatment is safe and effective in humans. These trials generally use two groups of people; one group receives the treatment and the other does not. The participants being studied do not know which group receives the actual treatment.

                Traditional Chinese medicine 
   An ancient system of medicine and health care that is based on the concept of balanced qi, or vital energy, that flows throughout the body. Components of traditional Chinese medicine include herbal and nutritional therapy, restorative physical exercises, meditation, acupuncture,  acupressure, and remedial massage.

                Yang 
  The Chinese concept of positive energy and forces in the universe and human body. Acupuncture is believed to remove yang imbalances and bring the body into balance.

                Yin 
   The Chinese concept of negative energy and forces in the universe and human body. Acupuncture is believed to remove yin imbalances and bring the body into balance.

                References

   1.Lytle, C.D. An Overview of Acupuncture. 1993. Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Health Sciences Branch, Division of Life Sciences, Office of Science and Technology, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration.

   2.Culliton, P.D. “Current Utilization of Acupuncture by United States Patients.” National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference on Acupuncture, Program & Abstracts (Bethesda, MD, November 3-5, 1997). Sponsors: Office of Alternative Medicine and Office of Medical Applications Research. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1997.

  3.Beinfield, H. and Korngold, E.L. Between Heaven and Earth: A Guide to Chinese Medicine. New York, NY: Ballantine Books, 1991.

   4.Brown, D. “Three Generations of Alternative Medicine: Behavioral Medicine, Integrated Medicine, and Energy Medicine.” Boston University School of Medicine Alumni Report. Fall 1996.

   5.Senior, K. “Acupuncture: Can It Take the Pain Away? ” Molecular Medicine Today. 1996. 2(4):150-3.

   6.Raso, J. Alternative Health Care: A Comprehensive Guide. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1994.

   7.Eskinazi, D.P. “National Institutes of Health Technology Assessment Workshop on Alternative Medicine: Acupuncture.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1996. 2(1):1-253.

   8.Tang, N.M., Dong, H.W., Wang, X.M., Tsui, Z.C., and Han, J.S. “Cholecystokinin Antisense RNA Increases the Analgesic Effect Induced by Electroacupuncture or Low Dose Morphine: Conversion of Low Responder Rats into High Responders.” Pain. 1997. 71(1):71-80.

   9.Cheng, X.D., Wu, G.C., He, Q.Z., and Cao, X.D. “Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Activities of Tyrosine Protein Kinase in Subcellular Fractions of Activated T Lymphocytes from the Traumatized Rats.” Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics Research. 1998. 23(3-4):161-170.

   10.Chen, L.B. and Li, S.X. “The Effects of Electrical Acupuncture of Neiguan on the PO2 of the Border Zone Between Ischemic and Non-Ischemic Myocardium in Dogs.” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 1983. 3(2):83-8.

   11.Lee, H.S. and Kim, J.Y. “Effects of Acupuncture on Blood Pressure and Plasma Renin Activity in Two-Kidney One Clip Goldblatt Hypertensive Rats.” American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1994. 22(3-4):215-9.

  12.Okada, K., Oshima, M., and Kawakita, K. “Examination of the Afferent Fiber Responsible for the Suppression of Jaw-Opening Reflex in Heat,  Cold and Manual Acupuncture Stimulation in Anesthetized Rats.” Brain Research. 1996. 740(1-2):201-7.

   13.National Institutes of Health. Frequently Asked Questions About Acupuncture. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1997.

   14.Dale, R.A. “Demythologizing Acupuncture. Part 1. The Scientific Mechanisms and the Clinical Uses.” Alternative & Complementary Therapies Journal. April 1997. 3(2):125-31.

   15.Takeshige, C. “Mechanism of Acupuncture Analgesia Based on Animal Experiments.” Scientific Bases of Acupuncture. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1989.

  16.Han, J. S. “Acupuncture Activates Endogenous Systems of Analgesia.” National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference on Acupuncture, Program & Abstracts (Bethesda, MD, November 3-5, 1997). Sponsors: Office of Alternative Medicine and Office of Medical Applications of Research. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1997.

   17.Wu, B., Zhou, R.X., and Zhou, M.S. “Effect of Acupuncture on Interleukin-2 Level and NK Cell Immunoactivity of Peripheral Blood of Malignant Tumor Patients.” Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chich. 1994. 14(9):537-9.

   18.Wu, B. “Effect of Acupuncture on the Regulation of Cell-Mediated Immunity in Patients With Malignant Tumors.” Chen Tzu Yen Chiu. 1995. 20(3):67-71.

   19.National Institutes of Health Consensus Panel. Acupuncture. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Statement (Bethesda, MD, November 3-5, 1997). Sponsors: Office of Alternative Medicine and Office of Medical Applications of Research. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1997.

   20.Lao, L., Bergman, S., Langenberg, P., Wong, R., and Berman, B. “Efficacy of Chinese Acupuncture on Postoperative Oral Surgery Pain.” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology. 1995. 79(4):423-8.

   21.Lewith, G.T. and Vincent, C. “On the Evaluation of the Clinical Effects of Acupuncture: A Problem Reassessed and a Framework for Future Research.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1996. 2(1):79-90.

   22.Tsibuliak, V.N., Alisov, A.P., and Shatrova, V.P. “Acupuncture Analgesia and Analgesic Transcutaneous Electroneurostimulation in the Early Postoperative Period.” Anesthesiology and Reanimatology. 1995. 2:93-8.

   23.World Health Organization. Viewpoint on Acupuncture. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1979.

   24.Bullock, M.L., Pheley, A.M., Kiresuk, T.J., Lenz, S.K., and Culliton, P.D. “Characteristics and Complaints of Patients Seeking Therapy at a Hospital-Based Alternative Medicine Clinic.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1997. 3(1):31-7.

   25.Diehl, D.L., Kaplan, G., Coulter, I., Glik, D., and Hurwitz, E.L. “Use of Acupuncture by American Physicians.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1997. 3(2):119-26.

   26.Levine, J.D., Gormley, J., and Fields, H.L. “Observations on the Analgesic Effects of Needle Puncture (Acupuncture).” Pain. 1976. 2(2):149-59.

   27.Ter Reit, G., Kleijnen, J., and Knipschild, P. “Acupuncture and Chronic Pain: A Criteria-Based Meta-Analysis.” Clinical Epidemiology. 1990. 43:1191-9.

   28.U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “Acupuncture Needles No Longer Investigational.” FDA Consumer Magazine. June 1996. 30(5).

   29.Berman, B., Lao, L., Bergman, S., Langenberg, P., Wong, R., Loangenberg, P., and Hochberg, M. “Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Acupuncture in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study.” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 1995. (3):139-42.

  30.Allen, John J.B. “An Acupuncture Treatment Study for Unipolar Depression.” Psychological Science. 1998. 9:397-401.

   31.Sonenklar, N. Acupuncture and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. National Institutes of Health, Office of Alternative Medicine Research Grant #R21 RR09463. 1993.

  32.Milligan, R. Breech Version by Acumoxa. National Institutes of Health, Office of Alternative Medicine Research Grant #R21 RR09527. 1993.

  33.Cardini, F. and Weixin, H. “Moxibustion for Correction of Breech Presentation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of the American Medical Association. 1998. 280:1580-4.

  34.American Academy of Medical Acupuncture. Doctor, What’s This Acupuncture All About? A Brief Explanation for Patients. Los Angeles, CA: American Academy of Medical Acupuncture, 1996.

  35.Lao, L. “Safety Issues in Acupuncture.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1996. 2(1):27-9.

                Acupuncture Information Resources

   The NIH does not endorse any of the resources listed below. You, as a health care consumer, are encouraged to explore these resources fully to determine their relevancy, position on treatment, relative cost, and background of authors or staff. You may wish to discuss this information with your doctor, who can assist you in critically evaluating all resources for their relevance to your diagnoses and circumstances. 
 

                Introduction

 The Information resources below are listed by title in the following categories:

    National Institutes of Health 
    Publications 
    Organizations (including Training and Credentialing Organizations) 
   Online Resources

 National Institutes of Health

   Combined Health Information Database (CHID) 
   7830 Old Georgetown Road, Suite 204 
   Bethesda, MD 20814 
   E-mail: chid@aerie.com 
   Web site: http://chid.nih.gov 
   CHID Online is a searchable and user-friendly database produced by more than a dozen health-related agencies of the Federal Government. This database provides titles, abstracts, and availability information for health information and health education resources, including acupuncture and Chinese medicine.

  National Center for Complementary and Alternative 
  Medicine (NCCAM) Clearinghouse 
  P.O. Box 8218 
  Silver Spring, MD 20907-8218 
 Telephone and TTY/TDY: 1888-644-6226 
  Fax: 301-495-4957 
  E-mail: nccam-info@nccam.nih.gov 
  NCCAM Web site: http://nccam.nih.gov 
 The NCCAM Clearinghouse, the information arm of NIH’s NCCAM, provides information about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including acupuncture, and the activities of the NCCAM. The NCCAM Web site has acupuncture information and provides links to the Web sites of nine CAM research centers (sponsored by the NCCAM), some of which are conducting acupuncture research.

  NIH Consensus Program Information Center 
   P.O. Box 2577 
  Kensington, MD 20891 
  Telephone: 888-644-2667 
  Fax: 301-593-9485 
  E-mail: consensus_statement@nih.gov 
  Web site: http://odp.od.nih.gov/consensus/cons/107/107_statement.htm.

 U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) 
 MEDLINE 
 8600 Rockville Pike 
  Bethesda, MD 20894 
 Telephone: 888-346-3656 
  Fax: 301-402-1384 
 E-mail: custserv@nlm.nih.gov 
  Web site: http://medlineplus.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ 
 An online consumer health information tool.

  Publications

  Books

   A Manual of Acupuncture, by Peter Deadman and Mazin Al-Khafaji (East Sussex, England: Journal of Chinese Medicine Publications, 1998). A detailed guidebook to descriptions of the theories and actual specific methods of acupuncture. It provides information on the channels, collaterals, point categories, point selection methods, point location, and needling.

   Basics of Acupuncture, by Gabriel Stux (Editor) and Bruce Pomerantz (Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag, 1995). The most recent of several widely used texts by acupuncture researchers.

   Between Heaven and Earth: A Guide to Chinese Medicine, by Harriet Beinfield and Efrem Korngold (New York, NY: Ballantine Books, 1991). An overview of Chinese medicine, with case histories of treatments and illustrated explanations of philosophy, components, and treatments.

   Principles and Practice of Contemporary Acupuncture, by Sung J. Liao, Matthew Lee, and Lorenz K.Y. Ng (New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, 1994). Contains translations of ancient Chinese medical classics previously unavailable in English. Compares and contrasts traditional Chinese and Western scientific medicine.

  The Chinese Way to Healing: Many Paths to Wholeness, by Misha Ruth Cohen (New York, NY: The Berkeley Publishing Group, 1996). A guidebook to Chinese medicine in the United States, with information about diet, herbs, acupuncture, and finding qualified practitioners.

   The Web That Has No Weaver, by Ted Kaptchuk (New York, NY: Congdon and Weed, 1992). An introduction to traditional Chinese medicine, with comparisons of Eastern and Western medicaltreatments.

  The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine, by Maoshing Ni (Boston, MA: Shambala Press, 1995). 
  A contemporary translation of the classic traditional Chinese medicine text that dates from 2000 B.C.

                Periodicals 
  These periodicals contain information about acupuncture research studies, techniques, effects, and use. Look for “peer reviewed” journals, which publish studies reviewed by researchers in the field to ensure suitability for publication.

 Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics Research Cognizant Communications Corporation 
 3 Hartsdale Road Elmsford, NY 10523-3701 
 Telephone: 914-592-7720 
 Fax: 914-592-8981 
 E-mail: cogcomm@aol.com 
 A peer-reviewed quarterly in its 23rd year and indexed/abstracted in MEDLINE.

 Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutics Thorne Research, Inc. 
 P.O. Box 3200 Sandpoint, ID 83864 
 Telephone: 208-263-1337 
 Fax: 208-265-2488 
 A peer-reviewed quarterly indexed/abstracted in MEDLINE.

 American Journal of Acupuncture 
 1840 41st Avenue, Suite 102 Capitola, CA 95010 
 Telephone: 831-475-1700 
 Fax: 831-475-1439 
  A quarterly peer-reviewed journal.

 American Journal of Chinese Medicine Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine 
 P.O. Box 555 Garden City, NY 11530 
 Telephone: 617-739-1182 
 Fax: 617-739-1183 
 A peer-reviewed journal published three times a year and indexed/abstracted in MEDLINE.

 European Journal of Oriental Medicine 
 179 Gloucester Place London NW1 6DX United Kingdom 
 Telephone: 01717 245756 
 A quarterly research journal.

 Guideposts: Acupuncture in Recovery J&M Reports 
 7402 NE 58th Street Vancouver, WA 98662-5207 
 Telephone: 360-254-0186 
 Fax: 360-260-8620 
 A newsletter concerning acupuncture used to treat addiction, alcoholism, and mental health problems.

 Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice and Policy 
 Mary Ann Liebert, Publisher 
 2 Madison Avenue Larchmont, NY 10538 
 Telephone: 1-800-654-3278 or 914-834-3100 
 Fax: 914-834-3688 
 E-Mail: info@liebertpub.com 
 Web site: http://www.liebertpub.com/ 
 A quarterly journal abstracted/indexed in MEDLINE.

 Journal of Chinese Medicine 
 22 Cromwell Road Hove BN3 3EB United Kingdom 
 Telephone: 01273 748588 
 Fax: 01273 748588 
 A professional journal published three times a year.

 Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 
 Co-sponsored by the China Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy and the China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine Distributed by the American Center of Chinese Medicine 
 3121 Park Avenue, Suite J Soquel, CA 95073 
 Web site: http://www.jps.net/jtcm/profile.htm 
 A quarterly journal on clinical and theoretical research that is indexed/abstracted in MEDLINE.

                Organizations

 American Academy of Medical Acupuncture 
 Medical Acupuncture Research Organization 
 5820 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 500 Los Angeles, CA 90036 
 Telephone: 1-800-521-2262 or 323-937-5514 
 Fax: 323-937-0959 
 E-mail: JDOWDEN@prodigy.net 
 Web site: http://www.medicalacupuncture.org 
 A professional association of medical doctors who practice acupuncture. The academy provides a referral list of doctors who practice acupuncture. It also provides general information about acupuncture, legislative representation, publications, meetings, and proficiency examinations.

  American Association of Oriental Medicine 
 433 Front Street Catasauqua, PA 18032 
 Telephone: 610-266-1433 
 Fax: 610-264-2768 
 E-mail: aaom1@aol.com 
 Web site: http://www.aaom.org 
 A nonprofit professional organization of acupuncturists and practitioners of Oriental medicine. The association determines standards of practice and education through the National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine. It also funds research and provides a list of acupuncturists and Oriental medicine practitioners by geographic area. The association provides articles and fact sheets, membership and licensing information, a list of acupuncture schools, and a list of state acupuncture associations.

 British Medical Acupuncture Society 
 Newton House, Newton Lane Whitley, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4JA United Kingdom 
Telephone: 01925 730727 
 Fax: 01925 730492 
 Email: bmasadmin@aol.com 
 Web site: http://www.medical-acupuncture.co.uk 
 A group of doctors who practice acupuncture with more conventional treatments. The Society produces the journal Acupuncture in Medicine, published twice per year, covering original research and reviews.

 Foundation for Traditional Chinese Medicine 
122A Acomb Road York YO2 4EY United Kingdom 
 Telephone: 01904 785120 
 Fax: 01904 784828 
 E-mail: monica@dipactcm.demon.co.uk 
 Web site: http://www.demon.co.uk/acupuncture/index.html 
The Foundation funds the Acupuncture Research Resource Center and provides information about acupuncture research listed by condition, including migraine and lower back pain.

 International Council of Medical Acupuncture and Related Techniques 
 Rue de l’Amazone 62 1060 Brussels Belgium 
 Telephone: 03225 393900 
  Fax: 03225 393692 
 E-mail: fbeyens@arcadis.be 
 Web site: http://users.med.auth.gr/~karanik/english/icmart/intro.html 
 A nonprofit organization created in 1983 of more than 40 national acupuncture-related associations of medical doctors practicing acupuncture and/or related techniques.

 National Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Alliance 
 14637 Starr Road SE Olalla, WA 98359 
 Telephone: 253-851-6896 
 Fax: 253-851-6883 
 Web site: http://www.acuall.org 
 A professional society of state-licensed, registered, or certified acupuncturists, with membership open to consumers, schools, organizations, corporate sponsors, and health care providers. The Alliance lists thousands of acupuncturists across the country on its Web site and provides information about them to callers to their information and referral line. The Alliance requires documentation of state license or national board certification from all acupuncturists it lists.

 National Acupuncture Detoxification Association 
 P.O. Box 1927 Vancouver, WA 98668-1927 
Telephone: 1-888-765-6232 
 Fax: 805-969-6051 
 A nonprofit organization that provides training and consultation for more than 500 drug and alcohol acupuncture treatment programs run by local agencies. The organization’s clearinghouse provides a library of audiotapes, videotapes, and literature on using acupuncture to treat addiction and mental disorders.

 National Acupuncture Foundation 
 P.O. Box 2271 Gig Harbor, WA 98335-4271 
 Telephone: 253-851-6538 
 Fax: 253-851-6538 
 The Foundation publishes books, including the Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Law Book and the Clean Needle Technique Manual. The Foundation filed the U.S. Food and Drug Administration needle reclassification petition of 1996.

 Society for Acupuncture Research 
 6900 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 700 Bethesda, MD 20815 
 Telephone: 301-571-0624 
 Fax: 301-961-5340 
  A nonprofit organization that facilitates the scientific evaluation of acupuncture.

 Training and Credentialing Organizations

 Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine 
 1010 Wayne Avenue, Suite 1270 Silver Spring, MD 20910 
 Telephone: 301-608-9680 
 Fax: 301-608-9576 
 E-mail: 73352.2467@compuserve.com 
 The Commission, established in 1982, evaluates professional master’s degree and first professional master’s-level certificate and diploma programs in acupuncture and Oriental medicine, with concentrations in both acupuncture and herbal therapy.

 Council of Colleges of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine 
 1010 Wayne Avenue, Suite 1270 Silver Spring, MD 20910 
 Telephone: 301-608-9175 
 Fax: 301-608-9576 
 Web site: http://www.ccaom.org 
 This Council was formed in 1982 and has developed academic and clinical guidelines and core curriculum requirements for master’s and doctoral programs in acupuncture as well as acupuncture and Oriental medicine.

 NAFTA Acupuncture Commission Standards Management, Inc. 
 14637 Starr Road SE Olalla, WA 98359 
 Telephone: 253-851-6896 
 Fax: 253-851-6883 
 This group of educators, acupuncturists, medical doctors, and naturopathic doctors meet to exchange information and discuss training standards of competence for the practice of acupuncture and Oriental medicine in North America, including Mexico and Canada.

 National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine 
 11 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 300 Alexandria, VA 22314 
 Telephone: 703-548-9004 
 Fax: 703-548-9079 
 E-mail: info@nccaom.org 
 Web site: http://www.nccaom.org 
 This Commission was established in 1982 to implement nationally recognized standards of competence for the practice of acupuncture and Oriental medicine. It provides information and programs on certification standards for acupuncturists.

                Online Resources

  The Internet is one of the fastest ways to access health information, but much of this information is not controlled or reviewed by qualified health professionals. Approach information from the Internet with caution, as it may be misleading, incorrect, or even dangerous.

                Acuall.org 
  Web site: http://www.acuall.org 
  A site sponsored by the National Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Alliance with general information on acupuncture and Oriental medicine, referrals to practitioners, legislative status, national issues, conferences and workshops, publications, and information for potential students.

                Healingpeople.com 
  Web site: http://www.healingpeople.com 
 Describes and summarizes acupuncture procedures, areas of research, and other pertinent information from multiple sources.

                Health Info Library: Acupuncture 
  Web site: http://www.americanwholehealth.com/library/acupuncture/tcm.htm 
  A site by the health care company American WholeHealth that provides acupuncture articles and research.

                Medical Matrix 
 Web site: http://www.medmatrix.org 
  A gateway to clinical medical resources, including numerous medical journals. 
 National Library of Medicine. Current Bibliographies in Medicine&8218;Acupuncture 
 Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/cbm/acupuncture.html 
 Bibliographies to 2,302 scientific papers collected between January 1970 and October 1997.

 Summary of Controlled Clinical Studies Demonstrating the Effectiveness of Acupuncture Treatment for Various Conditions 
  Web site: http://www.halcyon.com/dember/studies.html 
 Summarizes studies on dental pain, migraine and headache, lower back pain, cervical pain, tennis elbow, dysmenorrhea (menstrual disorders), addiction, respiratory conditions, cardiovascular fitness, stroke, nausea, and sleep disorders.

   Acupuncture Information and Resources Package

                                                                                           Publication Z-01 April 1999 
                                                                                               NCCAM Clearinghouse

                                                                                          Web Version Updated: October 1999

 

 Please send requests for information about complementary or alternative medicine to:

NCCAM Clearinghouse 
 P.O. Box 8218 
 Silver Spring, MD 20907-8218

1-888-644-6226 (1-888-NIH-NCAM) (Toll-free, TTY/TDY, and Fax-On-Demand) 
 1-301-495-4957 (Fax) 
 nccam-info@nccam.nih.gov (E-mail)

 http://nccam.nih.gov (NCCAM Web site)

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